"Let unity, the greatest good of all goods, be your preoccupation." - St. Ignatius of Antioch (Letter to St. Polycarp)
Sunday, August 17, 2008
St. Clement on the Church
I would like to consider the letter of St. Clement of Rome, in particular to see what he tells us about the Church. I wrote a little about this letter in a previous post earlier this year -- there I was talking about love and unity. (The relation of love and unity is a theme I intend to write about here shortly, in a series of posts.) If you wish to comment on this post, let me ask you to read first the letter of St. Clement to the Corinthians in a prayerful and careful manner. (Ideally, read it out loud.) What kind of heart and character do you hear in the words of St. Clement? Does he seem to be the kind of person who would deviate from what he had received, or does he seem to be someone who would rather gladly die than depart from what he had received?
First, what do we know about St. Clement? One of the ways we know about St. Clement is through St. Irenaeus (c. 130 – c. 200 AD). St. Irenaeus was a pupil of St. Polycarp (c. 69 - 155 AD) bishop of Smyrna. (See St. Irenaeus's description of his personal knowledge of St. Polycarp in Ad haer 3.3.4.) And according to St. Irenaeus, St. Polycarp "was not only taught by the Apostles, and lived in familiar intercourse with many that had seen Christ, but also received his appointment in Asia from the Apostles as Bishop in the Church of Smyrna." St. Irenaeus had been a priest (presbyter) in Lyon under bishop Pothinus (c. 87 - 177 AD), and around 177-178 he had been sent to St. Eleutherus (bishop of Rome from 175-189 AD), to help bring some relief from the persecution under Marcus Aurelius. (To see the letter commending St. Irenaeus to St. Eleutherus, see Eusebius, History of the Church, 5.4.) St. Irenaeus spent some significant time with the Church at Rome. He served as bishop of Lyon from approximately 177 AD until the end of his life.
St. Irenaeus, in his Adversus haeresis writes concerning St. Clement and his letter to the Corinthians:
[BOQ] The blessed apostles, then, having founded and built up the Church, committed into the hands of Linus the office of the episcopate. Of this Linus, Paul makes mention in the Epistles to Timothy. To him succeeded Anacletus; and after him, in the third place from the apostles, Clement was allotted the bishopric. This man, as he had seen the blessed apostles, and had been conversant with them, might be said to have the preaching of the apostles still echoing [in his ears], and their traditions before his eyes. Nor was he alone [in this], for there were many still remaining who had received instructions from the apostles. In the time of this Clement, no small dissension having occurred among the brethren at Corinth, the Church in Rome despatched a most powerful letter to the Corinthians, exhorting them to peace, renewing their faith, and declaring the tradition which it had lately received from the apostles, proclaiming the one God, omnipotent, the Maker of heaven and earth, the Creator of man, who brought on the deluge, and called Abraham, who led the people from the land of Egypt, spoke with Moses, set forth the law, sent the prophets, and who has prepared fire for the devil and his angels. From this document, whosoever chooses to do so, may learn that He, the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, was preached by the Churches, and may also understand the apostolical tradition of the Church, since this Epistle is of older date than these men who are now propagating falsehood, and who conjure into existence another god beyond the Creator and the Maker of all existing things. To this Clement there succeeded Evaristus. Alexander followed Evaristus; then, sixth from the apostles, Sixtus was appointed; after him, Telephorus, who was gloriously martyred; then Hyginus; after him, Pius; then after him, Anicetus. Soter having succeeded Anicetus, Eleutherius does now, in the twelfth place from the apostles, hold the inheritance of the episcopate. In this order, and by this succession, the ecclesiastical tradition from the apostles, and the preaching of the truth, have come down to us. And this is most abundant proof that there is one and the same vivifying faith, which has been preserved in the Church from the apostles until now, and handed down in truth. [EOQ] (Ad. haer. 3.3.3) (emphases mine)
St. Irenaeus, who had spent time with the Church at Rome, and who had been taught under St. Polycarp who had conversed with some Apostles, claims that St. Clement had also conversed with the Apostles (i.e. Peter and Paul), and that he was bishop of the Church at Rome after St. Linus and St. Cletus. That is also attested to by the liturgy of the Church at Rome, which to this day preserves the name of "Clemens" after Linus and Cletus in the litany of prayers, and these names follow directly after those of the Apostles. The recitation of these names in the Roman liturgy has been in place apparently since the second century.
The well-known Church historian and bishop of Caesarea, Eusebius (249 - 340 AD) claims (History of the Church 3.4) that St. Clement is the same Clement referred to by St. Paul in Philippians 4:3, where St. Paul writes, "I ask you also, who are a true co-worker, to help these women, for they have labored side by side with me in the gospel, together with Clement and the rest of my fellow workers, whose names are in the book of life." (See also Eusebius History of the Church, 3.15.) Some have claimed that the Fortunatus referred to at the end of St. Clement's letter is the same Fortunatus referred to by St. Paul in 1 Corinthians 16:17. Eusebius goes on to refer to St. Clement's letter to the Corinthians. Eusebius writes:
[BOQ] There is extant an epistle of this Clement which is acknowledged to be genuine and is of considerable length and of remarkable merit. He wrote it in the name of the church of Rome to the church of Corinth, when a sedition had arisen in the latter church. We know that this epistle also has been publicly used in a great many churches both in former times and in our own. And of the fact that a sedition did take place in the church of Corinth at the time referred to Hegesippus is a trustworthy witness. [EOQ] (History of the Church, 3.16.)
Hegesippus (c. 110-180 AD), who visited various bishops during his travels, including the bishops of Corinth and Rome, is quoted by Eusebius as having appended some remarks to Clement's Epistle to the Corinthians; these remarks indicate that the Church at Corinth remained pure in doctrine until Primus became bishop. (History of the Church 4.22)
The tradition has always and everywhere treated the letter of St. Clement to the Corinthians as from St. Clement of Rome. Dionysius the bishop of Corinth in 170 AD mentions St. Clement's letter, and reports that it was still read in their Sunday gatherings. (Eusebius quotes Dionysius's letter in History of the Church 4.23.) The letter was cited as St. Clement's by St. Clement of Alexandria (d. c. 215) and by Origen (185 - 232 AD). Tertullian (c. 155 - c. 222), in his Prescription Against Heretics, claims that St. Clement was ordained by the Apostle Peter, as St. Polycarp was ordained by the the Apostle John. (Prescrip. c. 32)
Eusebius claims that St. Clement was still the "head of the Roman community" in the first year of Trajan. (See History of the Church, 3.21.) According to Eusebius (E.H. 3.34), St. Clement "departed this life, yielding his office to Evarestus" in the third year of the Emperor Trajan (100 AD), having been "in charge of the teaching of the divine message for nine years in all." St. Clement is thus thought to have been the bishop of the Church at Rome from about 90-91 AD to about 100 AD. The date of his letter to the Corinthians is not entirely certain, but traditionally it has been thought to come right after the persecution under Domitian, and thus around 96 AD.
Here now I wish to consider the contents of St. Clement's letter with regard to what he says about the Church. St. Clement opens his letter with this line: "The church of God which sojourns at Rome, to the church of God sojourning at Corinth". Here we see the recognition of distinct [particular] churches. There is a church that sojourns at Rome, and there is a church that sojourns at Corinth. Then he continues two lines later to address the church at Corinth as "dear brethren". These churches then, are in some way related. (More on that below.)
The situation at the church in Corinth was as follows. Members of the church at Corinth had "consulted" the church at Rome regarding a schism in the church at Corinth. (c. 1) This schism, which St. Clement describes as a "shameful and detestable sedition", involved the casting out by the laity (or some portion of them) of the elders (presbyters) of the church at Corinth. Speaking to the laity at the church at Corinth, St. Clement tells them that they had previously been "obedient to those who had the rule over you, and giving all fitting honour to the presbyters among you." (c. 1) "Moreover, you were all distinguished by humility, and were in no respect puffed up with pride, but yielded obedience rather than extorted it, and were more willing to give than to receive." ... "Every kind of faction and schism was abominable in your sight." (c. 2)
But, in their contentment and ease, they forsook their previous manner of living, and became puffed up and envious. (c. 3) He writes, "For this reason righteousness and peace are now far departed from you, inasmuch as every one abandons the fear of God, and is become blind in His faith, neither walks in the ordinances of His appointment, nor acts a part becoming a Christian, but walks after his own wicked lusts, resuming the practice of an unrighteous and ungodly envy, by which death itself entered into the world." (c. 3) He shows that since the fall of Adam and Eve, many evils have arisen from this very root of envy. (c. 4) According to St. Clement, these very same evils are what led to the persecutions and martyrdoms of Peter and Paul, "the greatest and most righteous pillars [of the church]". (c. 5)
Who should the laity obey? "It is right and holy therefore, men and brethren, rather to obey God than to follow those who, through pride and sedition, have become the leaders of a detestable emulation." (c. 14) The argument that St. Clement is constructing over the course of the entire epistle is that we follow God by following those authorities whom God has appointed, not those who rise up in sedition. We are not to follow those who make a rebellion, even if they do so claiming to be for peace. "Let us cleave, therefore, to those who cultivate peace with godliness, and not to those who hypocritically profess to desire it." (chptr 15)
He considers the examples of Christ, and the Old Testaments saints, in their humility and meekness. These are the examples we are supposed to emulate. "Thus the humility and godly submission of so great and illustrious men have rendered not only us, but also all the generations before us, better" (c. 19) We should be able to see this, he claims, from nature itself. God has established the whole universe in harmony and order. (c. 20) He wants all men to live in peace. And the Church likewise is set up by God in an ordered manner, to exist in the unity of a harmony (c. 37) so that if we follow that order in humility we will have peace and be to the world an example of humility like Christ and the Old Testament saints and Apostles. We must not therefore abandon the post that has been assigned to us in this divinely ordered body which is the Church. To do so is to go against God and the order He has set up through His wisdom and foresight. St. Clement writes:
"It is right, therefore, that we should not leave the post which His will has assigned us. Let us rather offend those men who are foolish, and inconsiderate, and lifted up, and who glory in the pride of their speech, than [offend] God. Let us reverence the Lord Jesus Christ, whose blood was given for us; let us esteem those who have the rule over us;" (c. 21)
There is an intimate connection between esteeming those who have rule over us, and reverencing Jesus Christ. To leave our post and take to ourselves an authority that does not belong to us is to offend God. (This hierarchical way of thinking is contrary to what I have termed 'monocausalism'.) St. Clement refers to those who set themselves against the will of God as God's enemies. He writes, "But who are His enemies? All the wicked, and those who set themselves to oppose the will of God." (c. 36)
All this first part of St. Clement's letter is to communicate the way in which God has set up the Church in an ordered, hierarchical way so that there will be peace and harmony, just as God created nature with an order so that all things move in harmony. St. Clement at this point (c. 37) discusses the organizational structure of an army, with its generals, prefects, commanders of a thousand, of a hundred, or of fifty. He points out that the army's ability to function in an ordered way, and also the well-being of each soldier in the army, depends upon all of its members operating in accordance with their particular rank. (c. 37) Likewise, he draws an analogy between the Church and a living body. "Let us take our body for an example. The head is nothing without the feet, and the feet are nothing without the head; yea, the very smallest members of our body are necessary and useful to the whole body. But all work harmoniously together, and are under one common rule for the preservation of the whole body." (c. 37) What is his point in drawing a comparison between the Church on the one hand, and an army and body on the other? We all need each other, and we are part of a divinely ordered whole. For that reason we cannot divide from this whole or arrogate a role or rank within it that has not been given to us. This then gives us some insight into the relation of the church sojourning at Rome and the church sojourning at Corinth. They are each members of one Body, and one army. They are not a mere plurality or mere collection of independent entities; they are a unity -- an organic Body, with different roles and different gifts.
St. Clement then appeals to the order of the Jewish priesthood, showing how God had appointed that offerings be made at certain times and at particular places by certain persons. (c. 40) He makes a very clear reference to the three-fold order in the priesthood of the Old Covenant: High priest, priest, and Levite. Then he mentions the laymen. (This is the first time this term is used in the existing Christian literature.) The clear implication is that just as there was a hierarchical order in the Old Covenant, so likewise is there in the New Covenant. Why is he saying this? In order to show those laymen who had rebelled against their presbyters that they were going against a divinely appointed authority. He writes:
"Not in every place, brethren, are the daily sacrifices offered, or the peace-offerings, or the sin-offerings and the trespass-offerings, but in Jerusalem only. And even there they are not offered in any place, but only at the altar before the temple, that which is offered being first carefully examined by the high priest and the ministers already mentioned. Those, therefore, who do anything beyond that which is agreeable to His will, are punished with death. You see, brethren, that the greater the knowledge that has been vouchsafed to us, the greater also is the danger to which we are exposed." (c. 41)
This paragraph will make more sense when we get to St. Ignatius, for St. Clement is clearly also speaking of the Eucharist. (See St. Ignatius's letter to the Smyrnaeans, chapter 8.) The Christians knew of the prescription set up by the Apostles for following the Lord's command to "Do this in remembrance of Me". St. Clement is drawing a comparison (of similarity) between the order of Jewish worship and the order of worship commanded by Christ. (There is no contradiction between what St. Clement is saying here (chapters 40-41) and what St. Paul says in Colossians 2:13-21 about Christians not needing to follow the Jewish ceremonial law.)
St. Clement now gets to the fundamental basis for the authority of the presbyters of the church at Corinth:
[BOQ] The apostles have preached the gospel to us from the Lord Jesus Christ; Jesus Christ [has done so] from God. Christ therefore was sent forth by God, and the apostles by Christ. Both these appointments, then, were made in an orderly way, according to the will of God. Having therefore received their orders, and being fully assured by the resurrection of our Lord Jesus Christ, and established in the word of God, with full assurance of the Holy Ghost, they went forth proclaiming that the kingdom of God was at hand. And thus preaching through countries and cities, they appointed the first fruits [of their labours], having first proved them by the Spirit, to be bishops and deacons of those who should afterwards believe. Nor was this any new thing, since indeed many ages before it was written concerning bishops and deacons. For thus says the Scripture in a certain place, I will appoint their bishops in righteousness, and their deacons in faith. [EOQ](c. 42)
Notice that by saying that these offices of bishop and deacon are not new, St. Clement is connecting the Old and New Covenants. And that makes his earlier three-fold distinction between high priest, priest, and Levite relevant to the New Covenant order as well. He sets up an expectation of the difference between the bishop and presbyter, as equivalent in a way, to the difference between the high priest and the priest. Also notice here that order (and orders) comes from the top down. God the Father sent Jesus. Jesus in turn authorized and sent the Apostles. And the Apostles in turn authorized and ordained bishops and deacons. Here we say that one does not take a 'rank' in the army (or body) of Christ by arrogating it to oneself, but by being called to do so by one having that authority. Only those having authority can give authority, because one cannot give what one does not have. The Church in its order imitates Christ who said, "My teaching is not mine, but his who sent me." (See the passages from the gospels in which Jesus specifies His relation to the Fathers here.)
St. Paul did this when he was dealing with a question of supreme importance: "I received from the Lord what I also delivered to you." (1 Cor 11:23) (See also my post on Acts 15:24 and my post on Romans 10:15.) It seems to me that gnosticism of the Montanistic sort turns the gospel into a mere message, separable from authorized persons, and received directly from heaven (making the incarnation unnecessary) by a divine spirit into one's own heart, and thus robs these verses of their true meaning and denies the organic and incarnational nature of the Mystical Body of Christ.
St. Clement goes on in chapter 43 to say the following:
[BOQ]And what wonder is it if those in Christ who were entrusted with such a duty by God, appointed those [ministers] before mentioned, when the blessed Moses also, a faithful servant in all his house, noted down in the sacred books all the injunctions which were given him, and when the other prophets also followed him, bearing witness with one consent to the ordinances which he had appointed? For, when rivalry arose concerning the priesthood, and the tribes were contending among themselves as to which of them should be adorned with that glorious title, he commanded the twelve princes of the tribes to bring him their rods, each one being inscribed with the name of the tribe. And he took them and bound them [together], and sealed them with the rings of the princes of the tribes, and laid them up in the tabernacle of witness on the table of God. And having shut the doors of the tabernacle, he sealed the keys, as he had done the rods, and said to them, Men and brethren, the tribe whose rod shall blossom has God chosen to fulfil the office of the priesthood, and to minister unto Him. And when the morning was come, he assembled all Israel, six hundred thousand men, and showed the seals to the princes of the tribes, and opened the tabernacle of witness, and brought forth the rods. And the rod of Aaron was found not only to have blossomed, but to bear fruit upon it. What think ye, beloved? Did not Moses know beforehand that this would happen? Undoubtedly he knew; but he acted thus, that there might be no sedition in Israel, and that the name of the true and only God might be glorified; to whom be glory for ever and ever. Amen.[EOQ](emphases mine)
Notice how St. Clement is showing in chapter 43 that the order God provided to avert schism under Moses is present also in the New Covenant, through the apostolic succession -- the appointment by the Apostles of the bishops and deacons discussed in chapter 42. This leads to the key paragraph for our intention of learning what St. Clement has to say about the Church:
[BOQ]Our apostles also knew, through our Lord Jesus Christ, that there would be strife on account of the office of the episcopate. For this reason, therefore, inasmuch as they had obtained a perfect fore-knowledge of this, they appointed those [ministers] already mentioned, and afterwards gave instructions, that when these should fall asleep, other approved men should succeed them in their ministry. We are of opinion, therefore, that those appointed by them, or afterwards by other eminent men, with the consent of the whole church, and who have blamelessly served the flock of Christ, in a humble, peaceable, and disinterested spirit, and have for a long time possessed the good opinion of all, cannot be justly dismissed from the ministry. For our sin will not be small, if we eject from the episcopate those who have blamelessly and holily fulfilled its duties. Blessed are those presbyters who, having finished their course before now, have obtained a fruitful and perfect departure [from this world]; for they have no fear lest any one deprive them of the place now appointed them. But we see that you have removed some men of excellent behaviour from the ministry, which they fulfilled blamelessly and with honour.[EOQ] (c. 44)
The Apostles knew there would be strife over the office of the episcopate; they had been foretold of this by Jesus. So when they appointed bishops, they gave careful instructions regarding the continuation of the office, and how this was to be done. This is part of the Apostolic teaching, namely, how the episcopal office is to be perpetuated, so that contention and strife over the episcopate can be averted. The means by which it is to be averted is that ordination is only from bishop to bishop, for if laymen could ordain, then there would be unending contention over the episcopal office. The whole church consents, or proposes candidates for ordination, and in this way too strife is averted, for the leaders are approved (or proposed) by the governed, even though ultimately given authority by those already having authority. It is no small sin to rebel against these divinely appointed who were appointed and authorized according to the order laid down by Christ through the Apostles.
What is the source of our divisions? St. Clements replies:
[BOQ]Why are there strifes, and tumults, and divisions, and schisms, and wars among you? Have we not [all] one God and one Christ? Is there not one Spirit of grace poured out upon us? And have we not one calling in Christ? Ephesians 4:4-6 Why do we divide and tear in pieces the members of Christ, and raise up strife against our own body, and have reached such a height of madness as to forget that we are members one of another? Romans 12:5 Remember the words of our Lord Jesus Christ, how He said, Woe to that man [by whom offences come]! It were better for him that he had never been born, than that he should cast a stumbling-block before one of my elect. Yea, it were better for him that a millstone should be hung about [his neck], and he should be sunk in the depths of the sea, than that he should cast a stumbling-block before one of my little ones. Your schism has subverted [the faith of] many, has discouraged many, has given rise to doubt in many, and has caused grief to us all. And still your sedition continues.[EOQ] (c. 46)
Notice how serious is the damage done by schism, according to St. Clement. It subverts the faith of many, discourages many, and gives rise to doubt to many, and causes grief to us all. The seriousness of this fault is thus treated by St. Clement as aptly described by Christ's claim about it be better that a millstone be hung around the offender's neck and that he be cast into the sea, than that he cast a stumbling-block before Christ's little ones. I wonder whether we take seriously enough how much damage the various contemporary schisms in Christianity have done to the faith of many. If we realized that the millstone prescription applied to our present schisms, wouldn't we be burning the midnight oil to be reconciled and reunited with each other?
According to St. Clement, the guilt of the Corinthian church's previous schism was lesser, because the persons followed then were Apostles [Cephas and Paul], and a man [i.e. Apollo] approved by the Apostles. "But now reflect who those are that have perverted you, and lessened the renown of your far-famed brotherly love. It is disgraceful, beloved, yea, highly disgraceful, and unworthy of your Christian profession, that such a thing should be heard of as that the most steadfast and ancient church of the Corinthians should, on account of one or two persons, engage in sedition against its presbyters. And this rumour has reached not only us, but those also who are unconnected with us; so that, through your infatuation, the name of the Lord is blasphemed, while danger is also brought upon yourselves." (c. 47)
In chapter 49, St. Clement discusses the relation of love and unity. I will pass over it here, because I have discussed it elsewhere, and hope to discuss it in more detail in the near future.
One of the things that has been handed down from the Apostles, claims St. Clement, is concord. True followers of Christ prefer to be blamed themselves rather than detract from the concord that has been handed down from the Apostles. (c. 51) This same attitude is expressed again in chapter 54 where St. Clement writes:
[BOQ] Who then among you is noble-minded? who compassionate? who full of love? Let him declare, If on my account sedition and disagreement and schisms have arisen, I will depart, I will go away whithersoever ye desire, and I will do whatever the majority commands; only let the flock of Christ live on terms of peace with the presbyters set over it. He that acts thus shall procure to himself great glory in the Lord; and every place will welcome him.[EOQ] (c. 54)
We are to rather be exiled than cause a sedition against the presbyters set over the church. At this point, St. Clement moves to the imperative voice. First he urges those who instigated the sedition to submit to the rightful presbyters:
[BOQ] You therefore, who laid the foundation of this sedition, submit yourselves to the presbyters, and receive correction so as to repent, bending the knees of your hearts. Learn to be subject, laying aside the proud and arrogant self-confidence of your tongue. For it is better for you that you should occupy a humble but honourable place in the flock of Christ, than that, being highly exalted, you should be cast out from the hope of His people.[EOQ] (c. 57)
He has spoken throughout the whole letter about the good of obedience, meekness, humility, order and harmony. Now he calls on those who have participated in the sedition to receive the counsel of the church of Rome, and to observe the "ordinances and appointments given by God", namely, the God-given authority of the Corinthian presbyters.
[BOQ] Let us, therefore, flee from the warning threats pronounced by Wisdom on the disobedient, and yield submission to His all-holy and glorious name, that we may stay our trust upon the most hallowed name of His majesty. Receive our counsel, and you shall be without repentance [i.e. have nothing to regret - BRC]. For, as God lives, and as the Lord Jesus Christ and the Holy Ghost live,— both the faith and hope of the elect, he who in lowliness of mind, with instant gentleness, and without repentance [i.e. without regret] - BRC] has observed the ordinances and appointments given by God — the same shall obtain a place and name in the number of those who are being saved through Jesus Christ, through whom is glory to Him for ever and ever. Amen.[EOQ] (c. 58)
St. Clement makes his strongest statement in chapter 59, when he says:
"If, however, any shall disobey the words spoken by Him through us, let them know that they will involve themselves in transgression and serious danger;" (c. 59)
This too is a rejection of monocausalism. St. Clement is claiming that God is speaking through him and the church at Rome, and thus that for the Corinthians to disobey the words he is speaking to them is to disobey God. This principle, that God is acting through divinely ordained authorities, can be seen both in the civil authorities as well as the ecclesial authorities, as St. Clement breaks into prayer:
[BOQ] To our rulers and governors on the earth — to them You, Lord, gavest the power of the kingdom by Your glorious and ineffable might, to the end that we may know the glory and honour given to them by You and be subject to them, in nought resisting Your will; to them, Lord, give health, peace, concord, stability, that they may exercise the authority given to them without offence. For You, O heavenly Lord and King eternal, givest to the sons of men glory and honour and power over the things that are on the earth; do Thou, Lord, direct their counsel according to that which is good and well-pleasing in Your sight, that, devoutly in peace and meekness exercising the power given them by You, they may find You propitious.[EOQ] (c. 61)
All the examples St. Clement has appealed to over the course of his letter have been to show the virtues of humility and obedience toward divinely appointed authorities. Thus he writes: "Right is it, therefore, to approach examples so good and so many, and submit the neck and fulfil the part of obedience, in order that, undisturbed by vain sedition, we may attain unto the goal set before us in truth wholly free from blame." (c. 63)
Finally, in conclusion he says, "Send back speedily to us in peace and with joy these our messengers to you: Claudius Ephebus and Valerius Bito, with Fortunatus; that they may the sooner announce to us the peace and harmony we so earnestly desire and long for [among you], and that we may the more quickly rejoice over the good order re-established among you." (c. 65) Here we see St. Clement urging the Corinthians to send back the Roman messengers with news of order having been re-established in the church at Corinth.
I am not going to make any application here of what St. Clement says to the Protestant-Catholic schism. What I want is to get inside the heart and mind of St. Clement, and to understand what he is saying about the Church. He gives an insight into the heart and mind of the Apostles regarding these things, because he still has, as St. Irenaeus says, "the preaching of the apostles ... echoing [in his ears], and their traditions before his eyes".